Types of Research
Land tenure refers to a set of land rights and land governance institutions which can be informal (customary, traditional) or formal (legally recognized), that define relationships between people and land and natural resources (FAO, 2002). These land relationships may include, but are not limited to, rights to use land for cultivation and production, rights to control how land should be used including for cultivation, resource extraction, conservation, or construction, and rights to transfer – through sale, gift, or inheritance – those land use and control rights (FAO, 2002). Land tenure security – i.e., the level of confidence landholders have in their land rights – depends on the ability of informal and formal institutions to enforce those land rights and prevent others from challenging them (Feder & Feeny, 1991). In low and middle income countries land tenure security has been linked to improved land management including greater investments to improve land and agricultural productivity (Deininger & Jun, 2006; Deininger, Ali, & Alemu, 2011; Ali, Deininger, & Goldstein, 2014; Lawry et al., 2017). Having legal documentation in particular has been associated with a greater sense of ownership over land, increases in land productivity and capital investments associated with land, and in some cases additional financial opportunities such as access to credit for landholders with formal land titles (Deininger, Ali, & Alemu, 2011). But in spite of the widely recognized benefits of land tenure security more than 70 percent of the world’s population – and in particular many poor and vulnerable populations including ethnic minorities, smallholder farmers, and women – still lack access to formal systems to register their property and receive legally recognized land titles (Place, 2009; Enemark et al., 2014; Mitchell et al. 2016).
EPAR's research on land tenure consists of two components. First, we identified 38 land tenure technologies currently being applied to support land tenure security across the globe, and conducted a review analyzing the characteristics of these technologies and their uses for land tenure security. Most (27 out of the 38) technologies engage in "Data Collection and Aggregation" activities, working to bring together maps, images, and other records of land tenure. Eight technologies are used to support "Enabling" land tenure activities, providing access to information or legal guidance around land tenure, and 16 support "Titling" activities, facilitating land administration including certification, titling, and transfers. Thirteen of the technologies are used for multiple activity types. Many operate on a global scale (9 out of 38), however of the technologies that have been developed and implemented to target specific regions, most target Sub-Saharan Africa (8) followed by Latin America (4) and Southeast Asia (4). Twenty-seven of the technologies reviewed specify a target population: the most targeted populations are low-income and rural populations (nine technologies each), followed by women (eight technologies), and indigenous groups (seven technologies). We find initial evidence of impacts from the implementation of 18 of 38 technologies, though this evidence is largely limited to direct outputs of technology implementation. The three outputs that are most widely reported are number of communities or parcels mapped (from Type II activities), the number of titles or certifications issued (from Type III titling activities), and efficiencies achieved. We also find some evidence of cost efficiencies achieved, from the perspective of land tenure system administrators – mostly government bodies). Summary profiles for 10 selected land tenure are available, as is a spreadsheet with coded information for each of the technologies reviewed.
Second, we calculated summary statistics for indicators of land tenure from the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) for three survey waves for Tanzania (2008-09, 2010-11, and 2012-13) and the two most recent waves for Ethiopia (2013-14 and 2015-16). We present data at the plot, household, and community level. The summary statistics illustrate differences in land tenure by gender of plot manager or head of household, as well as differences across survey waves and countries. Work to reproduce estimates of certain of these land tenure indicators for additional LSMS-ISA survey waves in Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Nigeria is ongoing.
Previous EPAR research identified a high level of year-to-year change in crop portfolios by farmers, as well as large-magnitude changes in cultivated area, particularly for smallholders. This implies that farmers may be open to changes in crop mix influenced by development interventions targeting certain crops. Many agricultural development interventions focus on increasing land productivity, in particular relying on crop-focused strategies that emphasize raising yields of major cereal crops. Such interventions often assume that as farmers become more productive, they will specialize increasingly in their most productive crop, while relatively less productive farmers will shift to other crops, or shift out of farming into other rural employment, or migrate to look for urban employment. However, many smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa face constraints that also shape their livelihood decisions and may result in different farmer responses to land productivity changes than expected.
By examining how farmers respond to changes in crop yield, we provide evidence on how farmers are likely to respond to a yield-enhancing intervention that targets a single staple crop such as maize. Two alternate hypotheses we examine are: as yields increase, do farmers maintain output levels but change the output mix to switch into other crops or activities, or do they hold cultivated area constant to increase their total production quantity and therefore their own consumption or marketing of the crop? This exploratory data analysis is part of a long-term project examining the pathways between staple crop yield (a proxy for agricultural productivity) and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa.
We use panel data from three waves of the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TNPS) to investigate how Tanzanian farmers adjust their land allocation to maize following a change in their maize yield. We first evaluate whether households that experienced increasing maize yield from 2008-2010 (yield increasers) against those experiencing decreasing maize yield (yield decreasers) exhibit any shared baseline household, farm, or livelihood characteristics. We then use OLS and logistic regressions to analyse how much a change in maize yield within a given household is associated with changes in cropland allocation to maize versus other crops, controlling for household, farm, and geographic characteristics. Our results indicate that higher maize yields in 2010 are positively associated with increases in maize land allocation from 2010-2012 both as a land area value and when considering a household’s area share to maize, but that increases in maize yield from 2008-2010 are not significantly associated with maize planting decisions. A better understanding of the ways farmers respond to increases in maize yields will allow for better-informed and better-targeted investments in agriculture, and could inform ongoing structural transformation debates.
This paper considers how public good characteristics of different types of research and development (R&D) and the motivations of different providers of R&D funding affect the relative advantages of alternative funding sources. We summarize the public good characteristics of R&D for agriculture in general and for commodity and subsistence crops in particular, as well as R&D for health in general and for neglected diseases in particular, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Finally, we present rationales for which funders are predicted to fund which R&D types based on these funder and R&D characteristics. We then compile available statistics on funding for agricultural and health R&D from private, public and philanthropic sources, and compare trends in funding from these sources against expectations. We find private agricultural R&D spending focuses on commodity crops (as expected). However contrary to expectations we find public and philanthropic spending also goes largely towards these same crops rather than staples not targeted by private funds. For health R&D private funders similarly concentrate on diseases with higher potential financial returns. However unlike in agricultural R&D, in health R&D we observe some specialization across funders – especially for neglected diseases R&D - consistent with funders’ expected relative advantages.
The concept of global public goods represents a framework for organizing and financing international cooperation in global health research and development (R&D). Advances in scientific and clinical knowledge produced by biomedical R&D can be considered public goods insofar as they can be used repeatedly (non-rival consumption) and it is difficult or costly to exclude non-payers from gaining access (non-excludable). This paper considers the public good characteristics of biomedical R&D in global health and describes the theoretical and observed factors in the allocation R&D funding by public, private, and philanthropic sources.
We first conducted a literature review on factors theoretically associated with funding for early-stage biomedical research, including the expected correlates of funding levels for basic research, pre-clinical studies, and Phase I – IV clinical trials. To explore possible relationships between theorized drivers of R&D funding and actual funding flows, we analyzed evidence on how public, private, and philanthropic investments are affected by the public good characteristics of four high-burden diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries: malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis C, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.
Multiple factors influence R&D investment by public, private and philanthropic funders, including disease pathology and epidemiology, the current intervention landscape, policy and regulatory environment, and current and projected market conditions. Private sector investments are theorized to be primarily determined by opportunities for positive financial returns, while public and philanthropic investments may be motivated by a variety of social returns. We examine the specific funding decision factors identified in the literature for each of the four selected diseases.
Factors influencing the allocation of funds for biomedical R&D vary by disease, resulting in uneven funding across diseases. Due to issues of transparency and a lack of systematically collected data regarding R&D investments for diseases in low- and middle-income countries, especially from the private sector, these factors can be difficult to observe and measure. Furthermore, persistent data gaps can affect both aggregate investment and cooperative agreements.
A “new wave” of digital credit products has entered the digital financial services (DFS) market in recent years. These products differ from traditional credit by offering loans to borrowers that can be applied for, approved, and disbursed remotely (often without any brick-and-mortar infrastructure), automatically (generally minimizing or eliminating person-to-person interaction), and instantly (often in less than 72 hours). Digital credit also increasingly considers creditworthiness by using alternative (nontraditional) data—ranging from mobile phone activity to utility payments and social media data—potentially allowing for loans to populations previously unable to access bank credit. Two EPAR reports review the characteristics of digital credit offerings in India, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, and regulations specific to digital credit in Africa and Asia.
A growing body of evidence suggests that empowering women may lead to economic benefits (The World Bank, 2011; Duflo, 2012; Kabeer & Natali, 2013). Little work, however, focuses specifically on the potential impacts of women’s empowerment in agricultural settings. Through a comprehensive review of literature this report considers how prioritizing women’s empowerment in agriculture might lead to economic benefits. With an intentionally narrow focus on economic empowerment, we draw on the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)’s indicators of women’s empowerment in agriculture to consider the potential economic rewards to increasing women’s control over agricultural productive resources (including their own time and labor), over agricultural production decisions, and over agricultural income. While we recognize that there may be quantifiable benefits of improving women’s empowerment in and of itself, we focus on potential longer-term economic benefits of improvements in these empowerment measures.
We consider the case for spending the marginal dollar on empowering female farmers as a means of increasing household productivity, either prioritizing women for new investments or re-allocating existing resources. The literature suggests at least two distinct avenues via which economic benefits from investing in women’s empowerment in agriculture might arise. The first is by equalizing access to productive resources (including access to and control over land, labor, and other inputs) between men and women, and the second by leveraging differences between men and women that might lead to improved household outcomes. For the first avenue, we consider two theorized pathways to economic benefits from women’s empowerment in agriculture that posit reducing female farmers’ constraints would allow them to be as productive as equivalent male farmers. Pathway 1 focuses on empowering women through increasing their access to and control over agricultural inputs, thereby increasing overall agricultural productivity by reducing gender productivity gaps. Pathway 2 focuses on women’s control over their own time and labor, hypothesizing that removing constraints to women’s mobility would increase overall household labor productivity.
In the second avenue, we consider three further theorized pathways from increasing women’s decision-making power over agricultural decisions to economically beneficial individual and household outcomes, given assumed male-female differences in decision-making under similar circumstances. Pathway 3 connects differences in men’s and women’s decisions of what crops to grow with household nutrition outcomes. Pathway 4 hypothesizes that differences in plot management between men and women, specifically women’s greater likelihood of intercropping, influence farm soil quality and long-term household agricultural productivity. Finally, Pathway 5 draws a connection between differences in how men and women spend income from agriculture to impacts on household nutrition and education outcomes. We note that any measured benefits from leveraging male-female differences in the resource choices they make may dissipate as women gain more access and control if the differences are not due to being a woman per se, but rather stem from being disempowered - since this would change the circumstances in which evidence of these differences in decision-making have been observed.
This review of the literature ultimately shows some - but not conclusive - support for portions of all five theorized causal pathways between women’s economic empowerment in agriculture and economic returns. The literature also provides some dissenting evidence surrounding women’s constraints and preferences, most notably highlighting that results surrounding returns to empowerment can be context specific. We also note some inconsistencies in published methods and findings, and several key data gaps. First, published estimates of economic returns to empowering women in agriculture are still relatively rare, are mostly non-experimental, and are often limited in terms of data quality. Second, while published estimates provide some indication that, in many contexts, economic returns to women’s empowerment might be substantial, differences in measurement and reporting impede readily comparing benefits across contexts. Third, key variables necessary for extrapolating study findings to broader estimates of the benefits of economic empowerment – including basic variables such as land area managed by women – are not readily available. Finally, data on the costs of interventions addressing (eliminating or leveraging) the male-female differences in the five pathways are limited, making calculations of potential returns per dollar of investment difficult.
Previous research has shown that men and women, on average, have different risk attitudes and social preferences and may therefore see different value propositions in response to new economic opportunities. We use data from smallholder farm households in Mali to test whether risk perceptions differ by gender in this setting and across risk domains. We model the association between gender and perception or expression of concern across six risks (work injury, extreme weather, community relationships, debt, lack of buyers at market, and conflict) while controlling for demographic (age, education, health, wealth, time poverty, number of children) and attitudinal (social orientation, access to information, worldview, optimism, and beliefs about self-efficacy) characteristics. Factor analysis highlights extreme weather and conflict as eliciting the most distinct patterns of participant response. Regression analysis reveals an association between gender and risk perception, with women expressing more concern across all risks studied except for extreme weather. Also, we find lower risk perception associated with an individualistic and/or fatalistic worldview, a risk-seeking outlook, and optimism, while education, better health, a social orientation, self-efficacy and access to information are generally associated with more frequent worry – with some inconsistency for extreme weather, debt, and conflict risk. Further, income, wealth, and time poverty exhibit important, and complex, association patterns. Understanding if, and how, men’s and women’s risk preferences differ could help development organizations to shape interventions targeting women, to increase the likelihood of adoption, and to avoid inadvertently making certain sub-populations worse off by increasing the potential for negative outcomes.
We use OLS and logistic regression to investigate variation in husband and wife perspectives on the division of authority over agriculture-related decisions within households in rural Tanzania. Using original data from husbands and wives (interviewed separately) in 1,851 Tanzanian households, the analysis examines differences in the wife’s authority over 13 household and farming decisions. The study finds that the level of decision-making authority allocated to wives by their husbands, and the authority allocated by wives to themselves, both vary significantly across households. In addition to commonly considered assets such as women’s age and education, in rural agricultural households women’s health and labour activities also appear to matter for perceptions of authority. We also find husbands and wives interviewed separately frequently disagree with each other over who holds authority over key farming, family, and livelihood decisions. Further, the results of OLS and logistic regression suggest that even after controlling for various individual, household, and regional characteristics, husband and wife claims to decision-making authority continue to vary systematically by decision – suggesting decision characteristics themselves also matter. The absence of spousal agreement over the allocation of authority (i.e., a lack of “intrahousehold accord”) over different farm and household decisions is problematic for interventions seeking to use survey data to develop and inform strategies for reducing gender inequalities or empowering women in rural agricultural households. Findings provide policy and program insights into when studies interviewing only a single spouse or considering only a single decision may inaccurately characterize intra-household decision-making dynamics.
Previous EPAR research considered how public good characteristics of different types of research and development (R&D) and the motivations of different providers of R&D funding affect the relative advantages of alternative funding sources. We summarized the public good characteristics of R&D investment for agriculture in general and for commodity and subsistence crops in particular, and hypothesized how these characteristics might be expected to affect public, private, or philanthropic funders’ investment decisions.
This paper builds on this previous research by first analyzing data on public sector investment in agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on data from FAOSTAT and the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI), we explore relationships between indicators of agricultural R&D investment and various factors hypothesized to influence public investment decisions, including national demographic and economic indicators and indicators of crop production and value. We analyze which factors appear to be most strongly associated with investment patterns in public agricultural R&D, and whether these patterns align with theoretical expectations of where the public sector would be incentivized to invest.
Our analysis for this project is not yet complete, as we are proceeding with analyzing new ASTI data as well as additional sources of information on agricultural R&D spending by sector and by crop. In the meantime we invite you to view our interactive data visualization which allows you to explore our data and some of our initial analysis. We have also uploaded a spreadsheet of the data used to produce this visualization.
This brief presents an overview of EPAR’s previous research related to gender. We first present our key takeaways related to labor and time use, technology adoption, agricultural production, control over income and assets, health and nutrition, and data collection. We then provide a brief overview of each previous research project related to gender along with gender-related findings, starting with the most recent project. Many of the gender-related findings draw from other sources; please see the full documents for references. Reports available on EPAR’s website are hyperlinked in the full brief.