Research Topics

EPAR TECHNICAL REPORT #393
Publication Date: 11/22/2019
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

While literature on achieving Inclusive Agricultural Transformation (IAT) through input market policies is relatively robust, literature on the effect of output market policies on IAT is rarer. We conduct a selective literature review of output market policies in low- and middle-income countries to assess their influence on IAT and find that outcomes are mixed across all policy areas. We also review indicators used to measure successful IAT,  typologies of market institutions involved in IAT, and agricultural policies and maize yield trends in East Africa. This report details our findings on these connected, yet somewhat disparate elements of IAT to shed more light on a topic that has not been the primary focus of the literature thus far.

Technical Report #387
Publication Date: 04/04/2019
Type: Literature Review
Abstract

This technical report is an analysis of current trends and theories in consumer protection from both a legal and economic perspective. Traditional economic theory, especially the work of Akerlof (1970), suggests there are situations in which consumer protection is necessary to maintain healthy markets. Still, debate continues on the best methods of consumer protection. As an example, some economists argue for information disclosure, others paternalism, and still others so-called soft- or libertarian-paternalism. Any of these forms can be acheived through different bodies including government agencies, consumer associations, self-regulation, statutory and non-statutory standards bodies, ombudsman and professional organizations. Finally, the transition to digital economies has presented new challenges for consumer protection including security, privacy, complex liability chains, and the complexity of the products themselves.

EPAR Technical Report #306
Publication Date: 09/18/2015
Type: Literature Review
Abstract

We review the status and characteristics of 48 national identity programs and initiatives in 43 developing countries, and evaluate how these programs are being connected to—or used for—service provision. The identity programs we review are mainly government-issued national IDs. However, we also review other types of national identity programs with links to various services including voter cards, passports, and two programs targeting the poor and the banking population. Following a brief review of the roles of identity systems in development and recent identity system trends, we present an overview of the 48 national identity programs, including technical features (such as whether physical identities incorporate an electronic component or are embedded with biometric features), implementation status, population enrollment strategies, and coverage. We next review evidence of implementation challenges around accountability, privacy, data management, enrollment, coverage, cost, and harmonization of identity programs. Finally, we present the functional applications of national identity programs, reporting how these programs are linked with services in finance, health, agriculture, elections, and other areas, and analyzing whether particular identity program characteristics are associated with functional applications.

EPAR Technical Report #309
Publication Date: 08/12/2015
Type: Literature Review
Abstract

We review the current body of literature exploring the theories behind holistic human development measurements and the tradeoffs of different methodologies for the construction of human development indices. Through a systematic review of published and grey literature in the fields of human, international, and economic development we identify 22 current indices that aggregate measures from multiple dimensions of human development. We then analyze these indices to identify tradeoffs related to their unique characteristics and construction methodologies, considering ease of calculation, coverage of different measures of human development, ease of interpretation, comparability, and novelty. The report is accompanied by an appendix of summary tables for each index with further details regarding background information, methodology, index components, and evaluation criteria addressed within the report.