Research Topics

EPAR Research Brief #344
Publication Date: 08/10/2016
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This brief presents an overview of EPAR’s previous research related to gender. We first present our key takeaways related to labor and time use, technology adoption, agricultural production, control over income and assets, health and nutrition, and data collection. We then provide a brief overview of each previous research project related to gender along with gender-related findings, starting with the most recent project. Many of the gender-related findings draw from other sources; please see the full documents for references. Reports available on EPAR’s website are hyperlinked in the full brief. 

EPAR Research Brief #191
Publication Date: 02/09/2012
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This report presents data on selected agricultural commodities for the fourth quarter of 2011 (October through December). It provides a summary of recent changes and price trends, demand, supply, and market conditions for key agricultural commodities. Falling prices characterized the majority of commodities covered in this report. Major cereals and cocoa experienced significant bumper crops, increasing supply while simultaneously weakening demand. Fertilizers followed these trends as farmers waited to see how the markets changed in 2012. Livestock price trends were mixed, with chicken and goat prices increasing, while cattle and dairy prices fell. Tuber prices gained for some portion of the quarter before falling over the last part, with the exception of yams which gained throughout. 

EPAR Research Brief #145
Publication Date: 04/25/2011
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This report presents summary of recent changes and price trends, demand, supply, and market conditions for selected agricultural commodities for the first quarter of 2011 (January through March). The first quarter of 2011 was characterized by price volatility, particularly in cereals, and overall higher global commodity prices. Food prices generally continued the rise seen in 2010’s third and fourth quarters, with a minor drop-off resulting from the earthquake and nuclear crisis in Japan. Dairy, cotton, and cereals led the commodity gains. Stocks generally remained low, while consumption was seen as increasing. 

EPAR Research Brief #144
Publication Date: 04/06/2011
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This research brief synthesizes evidence on the effects of policy incentives on agricultural productivity. The evidence discussed is primarily drawn from documents provided to EPAR by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We review the role of policy and institutions in the Asian Green Revolution, a detailed case study on how policy changes have removed smallholder productivity constraints and contributed to growth, and the theory on the connection of policy incentives to productivity growth. 

EPAR Research Brief #137
Publication Date: 03/30/2011
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This brief presents selected material from the Fourth African Agricultural Markets Program (AAMP) policy symposium, Agricultural Risks Management in Africa: Taking Stock of What Has and Hasn’t Worked, organized by the Alliance for Commodity Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa that took place in Lilongwe, Malawi, September 6-10, 2010.  We draw almost exclusively from Rashid and Jayne’s summary, “Risk Management in African Agriculture: A review of experiences.”  This article summarizes across the background papers, with major findings grouped into three broad categories: cross cutting, government-led policies, and modern instruments.

EPAR Research Brief #120
Publication Date: 01/24/2011
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This report presents data on selected agricultural commodities for the fourth quarter of 2010 (October through December), with summaries of the entire year where available. It provides a summary of recent changes and price trends, demand, supply, and market conditions for key agricultural commodities. We find that the fourth quarter of 2010 was characterized by higher global commodity prices.  Food prices are coming out of a two-year period of relatively low price inflation due to the global recession, however increased global trade, some increased consumer demand, and higher energy and food production costs are likely to continue boosting prices as the world emerges from recession.  Grains, oilseeds and coffee lead in the gains in commodity prices.  Stocks generally remain low and severe weather including floods in Australia, drought in Russia, and bad weather in South America has contributed to several significant supply interruptions.  Current futures prices suggest that commodity prices will continue to rise in the short-term.

EPAR Research Brief #53
Publication Date: 12/02/2009
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

This report presents data on selected agricultural commodities for the second and third quarter of 2009 (April-September 2009) and the month of October, where available. More specifically, this report provides a summary of recent changes and trends in agricultural commodities markets. This summary is followed by an analysis of prices, demand, supply, and market conditions for key agricultural commodities. We find that agricultural commodity prices in 2009 have thus far decreased significantly from 2008 peak levels. While agricultural commodity prices remain subdued, the prices of some commodities including cocoa, coffee and maize have risen recently. An addendum to the Quarterly Commodity Price Update from April-October 2009 presents an overview of price data and recent trends in cotton, dairy, and international wheat commodity markets. Speculators note that fluctuations in the U.S. dollar, growing world demand, and uncertainty over the pace of global economic recovery have influenced agricultural commodities.

EPAR Research Brief #51
Publication Date: 07/02/2009
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

Yam is a major staple in West and Central Africa and an important supplementary food in East Africa. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), virtually all yams are produced for human consumption, with women responsible for processing yams for consumption. This brief provides an overview of the role of women in yam production, and provides a framework for analyzing barriers to women and technology’s impact on women throughout the cropping cycle. We find that though yam was traditionally considered a man’s crop, it is clear that women farmers contribute greatly to yam cultivation, especially during weeding, harvesting, and processing. Propagation of improved varieties with resistance to pests and diseases like yam mosaic disease has great potential to benefit women farmers. Increased yields and lower post-harvest losses will increase household food security.  However, because yams extract high amounts of nutrients from the soil, soil and land management techniques are necessary to ensure future gains in yield. Women’s groups serve as potential venues for dissemination of new yam cultivation and processing technologies.  Additionally, women’s groups can undertake new propagation techniques as income generating activities.  Women farmers need increased extension efforts to fully benefit from technology improvements.

EPAR Research Brief #40
Publication Date: 06/29/2009
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

The millets, a group of small-seeded grasses indigenous to Africa, are an extremely important staple food in resource-poor regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Millet requires few inputs, suffers less from insect pests and disease than other grains,  and can tolerate areas even too hot and dry for sorghum.  These characteristics make millet an essential component of food security and risk management strategies for many Africans, though both consumption and production per capita of millet has declined in the last 20 years as farmers have shifted toward maize and rice production. This brief provides an overview of the role of women in millet production, and provides a framework for analyzing barriers to women and technology’s impact on women throughout the cropping cycle. We find that the shift away from millet may result in poorer nutrition and increased time burden for women where they must find alternatives to millet fuel, but that little is known about these consequences. Investing in improved varieties that account for both men’s and women’s preferences, introducing labor-saving technology, and increasing market access all have the potential to increase millet’s production and consumption on the continent. 

EPAR Research Brief #39
Publication Date: 06/05/2009
Type: Research Brief
Abstract

Sorghum grows well in arid and semi-arid agroecological zones and is thus one of the most important cereals in the Sahel region of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Both men and women cultivate sorghum primarily for household consumption, though women are nearly exclusively responsible for post-harvest production of the grain, including brewing and selling sorghum beer.  This brief provides an overview of the role of women in sorghum production, and provides a framework for analyzing barriers to women and technology’s impact on women throughout the cropping cycle. We find that improved sorghum varieties have the potential to greatly increase sorghum yields in SSA by alleviating cultivation threats from striga, pests, and drought.  Because women farmers are the primary cultivators of sorghum, they stand to benefit most from these improved varieties. However, low adoption rates of new technologies suggest that more resources need to be dedicated to extension efforts and informal seed distribution networks that include women farmers. Post-harvest processing of sorghum is both time and labor intensive and is causing many women farmers to transition to maize or rice.  Finally, increased demand for sorghum as a biofuel stock may not translate into gains for women farmers as expected, because women farmers tend to lack input resources, and women farmers often lose control over crops as they transition to cash crops.