Types of Research
- (-) Remove Food Security & Nutrition filter Food Security & Nutrition
- (-) Remove Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Livelihoods filter Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Livelihoods
- (-) Remove Education & Training filter Education & Training
- (-) Remove Labor & Time Use filter Labor & Time Use
- (-) Remove Political Economy & Governance filter Political Economy & Governance
- (-) Remove Risk, Preferences, & Decision-Making filter Risk, Preferences, & Decision-Making
This report present a thorough review of relevant literature regarding labor constraints currently being faced in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review focuses on the impacts of labor supply issues, particularly as they relate to the use of new technology and management techniques, off farm labor migration, and the impacts of HIV/AIDS. The review is provides a basic breakdown of the different kinds of agricultural labor in SSA, before presenting the evidence on the causes and impact of agricultural labor constraints. Though labor constraints can be relevant on both the demand and supply side, especially for certain groups such as women and youth, our review follows the literature by focusing on the supply side issues. The literature reviewed was written between 1990 and 2008, and includes a combination of reports from government organizations and highly cited journal articles.
This brief presents an in depth analysis of the FAO’s methodology behind their calculations for hunger. The analysis includes a review of the key assumptions made by the FAO in their calculations, critiques of their methodology, and recommendations for future research. The critiques include opinions from the literature on the subject as well as from the authors of the request.
Presentation slides summarizing agriculture growth and development information sourced from the World Development Report and two academic papers provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Slides convey information in a non-academic format. Slides are organized into: agricultural pro-poor growth, agriculture as an engine for development, who benefits from agriculture, and the effects and policy impacts of the Green Revolution.
This quarterly report (Quarter 4, 2008) provides charts of historical and futures price information for key commodities including cocoa, coffee, rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, cashews, crude oil, and fertilizer. The historical price data is from a variety of sources including the World Bank and the Food and Agricultural Organization. This quarterly update lists average monthly prices through the end of 2008 and, for commodities that are sold on a futures market, projected prices through the end of 2010. The report provides a concise review of selected market bulletins, explaining broad trends for past volatility and future pricing.
Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring carcinogen produced by the fungus Aspergillus, particularly Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus. Aflatoxin contamination places an economic and health burden on farmers throughout the developing world, but reliable prevalence data are difficult to obtain. This report analyzes data from 25 primary research articles published within the last 15 years in order to provide a summary of aflatoxin contamination in the developing world. This report is divided into three parts, roughly aligning with phases of the agricultural value chain. Data for prevalence at the production and processing stage are presented first, followed by data for prevalence during storage, and finally by a summary of data for aflatoxin levels at consumption and point-of sale. We find maize and groundnuts to be the crops most affected by aflatoxin, while Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are the geographic areas most likely to be affected. Agroecological conditions including warm humid climates, irrigated hot deserts, and droughts contribute to aflatoxin contamination, and we find that contamination can occur throughout the value chain.
This brief presents an initial examination of the possibility of using Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) as a way to evaluate agricultural interventions. We review DALYs, their formulation, and the data necessary to compute values. A review of relevant literature suggests that to use DALYs as an evaluative tool, an agricultural intervention must be tied to a specific disease, and from there, impacts on DALYs can be assessed.
This quarterly report (Quarter 3, 2008) provides charts of historical and future price information for key commodities including coffee, cotton, cocoa, and cashews. We review historical price data from a variety of sources including the International Coffee Organization, International Cocoa Organization, Cotton Outlook and the Food and Agricultural Organization. This update lists average monthly prices through October 2008 and, for commodities that are sold on a futures market, projected prices through October 2010. The report provides a concise review of selected market bulletins, explaining broad trends for past volatility and future pricing.
As our understanding of the impacts of hidden hunger on human nutrition grows, understanding the link between fertilizer use and human nutrition becomes increasingly important. This report presents an analysis of both grey and peer-reviewed literature on the effects of fertilizer use on nutritional quality of food, particularly the staples of maize, rice, wheat, cassava and legumes. We find that some nutrient deficiencies, such as zinc, can be effectively addressed through fertilizer use while others, such as iron deficiency, are more difficult to address. Promising breakthroughs with fortified and complete fertilizers present the opportunity to correct multiple deficiencies. Current fertilizer products exist that, when applied with the proper agronomic methods, can have a significant effect on nutrition in the developing world. However, it is important to recognize that there are many factors in the developing world that have the potential to inhibit the benefits of fertilizer for human nutrition. Two significant factors are poor farmers’ difficulty in procuring the correct product and the relative sophistication required to apply fertilizers at the correct amounts and time to achieve desired results. In addition, researchers have not focused on fertilizer and nutrition studies until recently, particularly micronutrient fertilizer studies, and few studies specifically study the impacts of fertilizer on human nutrition. More research needs to be done to understand the most effective combinations and techniques, and to understand whether these methods truly increase the amount of nutrients bioavailable to humans.
This brief reviews the literature on the links between agriculture and human nutrition in rural South Asia, exploring why South Asia has experienced enormous growth in agricultural productivity without subsequent reductions in hunger. An annotated review of relevant articles is included in addition to the analysis. The articles are presented by sub-topic, including sustained economic growth versus lack of progress in nutrition rates and hunger in South Asia, primary determinants of improved nutrition at the household level, agricultural productivity/reform and interventions in nutritional status.
We conducted a literature review of strategic grain reserves (SGRs) are used to mitigate food crises. Our brief includes a short overview of the literature and a bibliography of top-cited articles relevant to specific sub-topics related to SGRs.