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Cereal yield variability is influenced by initial conditions such as suitability of the farming system for cereal cultivation, current production quantities and yields, and zone-specific potential yields limited by water availability. However, exogenous factors such as national policies, climate, and international market conditions also impact farm-level yields directly or provide incentives or disincentives for farmers to intensify production. We conduct a selective literature review of policy-related drivers of maize yields in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda and pair the findings with FAOSTAT data on yield and productivity. This report presents our cumulative findings along with contextual evidence of the hypothesized drivers behind maize yield trends over the past 20 years for the focus countries.
This is "Section E" of a report that presents estimates and summary statistics from the 2008/2009 wave of the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TZNPS), part of the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). We present our analyses of livestock and livestock by-product characteristics by gender of household head and by zones, as well as our analyses of livestock disease, vaccines, and theft.
This is "Section D" of a report that presents estimates and summary statistics from the 2008/2009 wave of the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TZNPS), part of the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). We present our analyses of basic farm characteristics, land and labor productivity, crop sales, yield measures, intercropping, and pre- and post-harvest losses, including comparisons by gender of household head and by zone.
This is the introductory section of a report that presents estimates and summary statistics from the 2008/2009 wave of the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TZNPS), part of the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). We present an overview of report sections, as well as an executive summary of findings on crops and livestock, constraints to productivity, and productivity and nutrition outcomes.
Agriculture is a principal source of livelihood for the Tanzanian population. Agriculture provides more than two-thirds of employment and almost half of Tanzania‘s GDP. Women play an essential role in agricultural production. The sector is characterized as female-intensive, meaning that women comprise a majority of the labor force in agriculture (54%). This brief reviews the academic and grey literature on gender and agriculture in Tanzania, providing an overview on the structure of households, the household structure of agricultural production, information on women’s crops, and gender and land rights in Tanzania. We conclude with a summary of challenges to women in agriculture, and of potential implications for women of advancements in production technology and other economic opportunities at the household level.
EPAR’s Poultry Markets in West Africa series provides an overview of poultry market trends across West Africa and compares the opportunities for poultry sector development in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The briefs in this series provide detailed country-specific poultry market analyses. The primary resources for these analyses included many reports prepared in response to the avian influenza epidemic, which may explain some of the emphasis on the importance of biosecurity in the available literature. We find that the West African poultry sector faces high production costs, safety concerns due to lack of sanitary controls, and technical constraints in processing and marketing. In addition to biological issues, the lack of breeders, marketing, and processing technology present technical constraints to poultry sector growth.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Benin as compared to the wider West African region. In Benin, live chickens, hens, poultry meat, and eggs for consumption are subject to the 20 percent Common External Tariff (CET), which facilitates an influx of cheap poultry imports from the European Union (EU). Live turkeys and other poultry, reproducers, and hatching eggs are subject to a 5 percent tariff. In the late 1990s, Benin experienced an influx of cheap poultry products primarily from the EU. By 2002, annual poultry imports reached approximately 24,000 tons, more than the poultry imports of any other country in West Africa. In 2004 and 2005, Benin banned imports of poultry and poultry by-products from countries affected by avian influenza. Current information about the poultry industry in Benin is limited. The primary sources for this analysis are a FAO poultry sector review from 2006, a poultry sector project report from the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), and a 2006 assessment by the Benin Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishing. We find that the poultry sector plays an important economic, social and cultural role in Benin. Poultry and egg production is a major contributor to the agricultural sector and is an important source of nutrition and income for Beninese households. The poultry sector in Benin has the potential to improve the nutritional wellbeing and income security of a large percentage of the population. Traditional smallholders produce the majority of poultry products domestically; however, current production is limited due to low productivity, poor biosecurity, and lack of inputs. We find that a reduction of foreign imports and greater institutional support for the industry may help domestic producers reach their potential.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Sierra Leone as compared to the wider West African region. Sierra Leone did not adopt the Common External Tariff (CET) until 2005, however 2004 tariff rates were already on par with official CET rates. The tariff for live chickens, hens, poultry meat and eggs for consumption remains at 20 percent, which facilitates an influx of cheap poultry imports from Europe. Live turkeys and eggs for hatching are subject to a 5 percent tariff. There is little public information available regarding poultry production in Sierra Leone. The primary sources for this analysis are Government of Sierra Leone documents responding to the avian influenza epidemic in the West African region. This report provides a brief overview of consumption and consumer preferences, domestic production, trade, the political environment, and opportunities for future poultry development in Sierra Leone. Because of the small amount of information regarding poultry production in Sierra Leone, we find that further information is necessary to understand the scope of opportunity for poultry market development.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Côte d’Ivoire as compared to the wider West African region. Côte d’Ivoire experienced an influx of cheap poultry products between 2000 and 2005, contributing to a significant increase in poultry consumption during those years. In 2005, Côte d’Ivoire banned imports from countries affected by avian influenza and increased taxes on all other imported poultry. The primary sources for this analysis are the FAO-Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) poultry sector review from 2008 and the information provided by the Interprofession Avicole Ivoirienne (IPRAVI) on their website. IPRAVI is the umbrella organization overseeing Côte d’Ivoire’s poultry sector. We find that smallholders produce the majority of poultry in Côte d’Ivoire. Common production practices lead to low productivity, poor bio-security, and limited distribution opportunities. Since the influx of cheap poultry imports between 2000 and 2005 and the import ban of 2005, overall consumption of poultry has declined along with imports, suggesting significant market potential for domestic poultry products. We provide specific areas for interventions to improve poultry productivity, based upon evidence from the African Development Bank and the FAO. Furthermore, we examine analyses from the FAO that suggest there is sufficient infrastructural capacity to expand the poultry sector and increase smallholder productivity.