Types of Research
- (-) Remove Household Well-Being & Equity filter Household Well-Being & Equity
- (-) Remove Information & Mobile Technology filter Information & Mobile Technology
- (-) Remove Food Security & Nutrition filter Food Security & Nutrition
- (-) Remove Finance & Investment filter Finance & Investment
- (-) Remove 2009 filter 2009
- (-) Remove Research Brief filter Research Brief
- (-) Remove Literature Review filter Literature Review
- (-) Remove 2011 filter 2011
- (-) Remove Market & Value Chain Analysis filter Market & Value Chain Analysis
This report presents summary of recent changes and price trends, demand, supply, and market conditions for selected agricultural commodities for the first quarter of 2011 (January through March). The first quarter of 2011 was characterized by price volatility, particularly in cereals, and overall higher global commodity prices. Food prices generally continued the rise seen in 2010’s third and fourth quarters, with a minor drop-off resulting from the earthquake and nuclear crisis in Japan. Dairy, cotton, and cereals led the commodity gains. Stocks generally remained low, while consumption was seen as increasing.
Agriculture is a principal source of livelihood for the Tanzanian population. Agriculture provides more than two-thirds of employment and almost half of Tanzania‘s GDP. Women play an essential role in agricultural production. The sector is characterized as female-intensive, meaning that women comprise a majority of the labor force in agriculture (54%). This brief reviews the academic and grey literature on gender and agriculture in Tanzania, providing an overview on the structure of households, the household structure of agricultural production, information on women’s crops, and gender and land rights in Tanzania. We conclude with a summary of challenges to women in agriculture, and of potential implications for women of advancements in production technology and other economic opportunities at the household level.
This research brief synthesizes evidence on the effects of policy incentives on agricultural productivity. The evidence discussed is primarily drawn from documents provided to EPAR by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. We review the role of policy and institutions in the Asian Green Revolution, a detailed case study on how policy changes have removed smallholder productivity constraints and contributed to growth, and the theory on the connection of policy incentives to productivity growth.
This report presents data on selected agricultural commodities for the fourth quarter of 2010 (October through December), with summaries of the entire year where available. It provides a summary of recent changes and price trends, demand, supply, and market conditions for key agricultural commodities. We find that the fourth quarter of 2010 was characterized by higher global commodity prices. Food prices are coming out of a two-year period of relatively low price inflation due to the global recession, however increased global trade, some increased consumer demand, and higher energy and food production costs are likely to continue boosting prices as the world emerges from recession. Grains, oilseeds and coffee lead in the gains in commodity prices. Stocks generally remain low and severe weather including floods in Australia, drought in Russia, and bad weather in South America has contributed to several significant supply interruptions. Current futures prices suggest that commodity prices will continue to rise in the short-term.
This report presents data on selected agricultural commodities for the second and third quarter of 2009 (April-September 2009) and the month of October, where available. More specifically, this report provides a summary of recent changes and trends in agricultural commodities markets. This summary is followed by an analysis of prices, demand, supply, and market conditions for key agricultural commodities. We find that agricultural commodity prices in 2009 have thus far decreased significantly from 2008 peak levels. While agricultural commodity prices remain subdued, the prices of some commodities including cocoa, coffee and maize have risen recently. An addendum to the Quarterly Commodity Price Update from April-October 2009 presents an overview of price data and recent trends in cotton, dairy, and international wheat commodity markets. Speculators note that fluctuations in the U.S. dollar, growing world demand, and uncertainty over the pace of global economic recovery have influenced agricultural commodities.
In Tanzania, agriculture represents approximately 50 percent of GDP, 80 percent of rural employment, and over 50 percent of the foreign exchange earnings. Yet poor soil fertility and resulting low productivity contribute to low economic growth and widespread poverty. Chemical fertilizer has the potential to contribute to crop yield increases. Yet high prices and weaknesses in the fertilizer market keep fertilizer use low. This literature review examines the history of government interventions that have intended to increase access to fertilizers, and reviews current policies, market structure, and challenges that contribute to the present conditions. We find that despite numerous strategies over the last fifty years, from heavy government involvement to liberalization, major weaknesses in Tanzania’s fertilizer market prevent efficient use of fertilizer. High transportation costs, low knowledge level of farmers and agrodealers, unavailability of improved seed, and limited access to credit all contribute to the market’s problems. The government’s current framework, the Tanzania Agriculture Input Partnership (TAIP), acknowledges this interconnectedness by targeting multiple components of the market. This model could help Tanzania tailor solutions relevant to specific road, soil, and market conditions of different areas of the country, contributing to enhanced food security and economic growth.
On July 10, 2009 at the Italy G8 summit, attendees issued a joint statement pledging to contribute $20 billion towards agricultural development and food security in the developing world over the next three years. This research brief notes the status of the contributions made to the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative and whether any of the $20 billion will be allocated to agricultural research. We conclude that no declarations have been made as of September 2009 on how much of the $20 billion will be allocated to agricultural research, and which types of research will be funded by the initiative.
This literature review provides information on the dynamics of the maize market and maize prices in Zambia. We address four key topics: average production costs and breakeven prices for maize farmers in Zambia, main drivers of volatility of maize production volumes, key factors driving the differences between Zambian and global maize prices, and policies that may have contributed to increased farmer productivity.
Smallholder farmers in Africa are largely located in poor rural areas, are often geographically dispersed, and have limited access to road and communication infrastructure, thus raising the cost of market participation. This is especially true for farmers growing relatively low value staple crops. This literature review summarizes research on the challenges and innovations in linking smallholder producers of staple grains to markets in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on post-harvest issues including storage, aggregation, and transportation. For each post-harvest stage, we describe challenges faced by farmers and current efforts to address these challenges. In our review, we find a large amount of literature on the constraints to smallholder production and marketing but relatively few examples of innovative or novel technologies designed to improve storage and transportation for rural smallholder producers in Africa. Existing technologies have often been available for some time but have not seen widespread adoption, apparently due to high costs or inadequate funding for on-farm testing and extension. We conclude that the literature is somewhat divided as to whether interventions linking smallholder farmers to markets should be entirely market-driven and focus on linkages that can be profitable without subsidization, or whether NGO- and donor-driven interventions should play a role.
Yam is a major staple in West and Central Africa and an important supplementary food in East Africa. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), virtually all yams are produced for human consumption, with women responsible for processing yams for consumption. This brief provides an overview of the role of women in yam production, and provides a framework for analyzing barriers to women and technology’s impact on women throughout the cropping cycle. We find that though yam was traditionally considered a man’s crop, it is clear that women farmers contribute greatly to yam cultivation, especially during weeding, harvesting, and processing. Propagation of improved varieties with resistance to pests and diseases like yam mosaic disease has great potential to benefit women farmers. Increased yields and lower post-harvest losses will increase household food security. However, because yams extract high amounts of nutrients from the soil, soil and land management techniques are necessary to ensure future gains in yield. Women’s groups serve as potential venues for dissemination of new yam cultivation and processing technologies. Additionally, women’s groups can undertake new propagation techniques as income generating activities. Women farmers need increased extension efforts to fully benefit from technology improvements.